Skip to main content

Full text of "First Irish grammar"

See other formats


\ m 



FIRST 

Irish Grammar 



BY 



THE CHRISTIAN BROTHERS 



»' *JL' '« 





BOS 



ARf 



DUBLIN 

M. H. GILL <x SON, LIMITED, O'CONNELL STREE'' 



FIRST 



Irish Grammar 



BY 



THE CHRISTIAN BROTHERS 



* * t 




BOSTON 






DUBLIN 
M H GILL & SON, LIMITED, OCONNELL STREET 



\r 



.<- 



This Compendium of £pÁiméA|\ ha ^Ae-óilge is 
intended to meet the wants of young students who 
require, in a concise form, the salient points of Irish 
Aooidenoe and Syntax. 

The Sections throughout the Compendium are 
numbered as in the larger Grammar, in order to afford 
facility of reference to those who may desire to obtain 
more detailed information on any point 



.MlWW 



O'NttL. 



PART L 

ACCIDENCE. 

1. The Irish alphabet contains eighteen 
letters ; the vowels are a, e, i, o, u ; the 
consonants, t>, c, x>, p, 5, ft, t, tn, 11, p, 

2. a, o, u are called broad vowels ; e 
and 1 are called slender vowels. 

The vowels ma) r be either long or short. 
The long vowels are marked by means of 
a finest) ( ') placed over the vowel; e.g., 
mOj\, t)T, mé. 

7. An Irish consonant is broad whenever 
it is beside a broad vowel, in the same 
word ; it is slender when beside a slender 
vowel. 

Aspiration, 

15. When we say that an Irish con- 
sonant is aspirated, we mean that the 
breath is not completely stopped in the 
formation of the consonant, and hence the 
consonantal sound is continuous, 

16. Aspiration is marked in writing and 
in print by placing a dot over the conso- 
nant aspirated, e.g. t t>, <\ x>. Go Of) 



17. In writing, nine of the consonants, 
viz., t), c, X), v, 5, m, p, f, u, can be 
aspirated. 

Rules for Aspiration of Initial Consonant. 

21. (a) The possessive adjectives, mo, 
my ; x)0, thy ; and a, his, cause aspiration 
— mo t)0, my cow. 

(b) The article aspirates nouns 
(except those beginning with t>, u, f ), in the 
nom. and ace. fern, sing., and in the gen. 
masc. sing.— xmi fteAti, the woman ; mAC ah 
í?ifi, (the) son of the man. 

(c) In compound words the initial 
consonant of the second word is aspirated, 
f eAn-iMtAiti, # grandmother. 

The letters t> and u are never aspirated 
after a word that ends in one of the letters 
d, n, u, t, r- 

(d) The interjection a, the sign of 
the voc. case, causes aspiration in nouns 
of both genders and both numbers — a 
SéAtnAir, (0) James ; a i)tnne, /Sir. 

(e) An adjective is aspirated when 
it agrees with a fern, noun in the ncm. and 
ace. sing. , or with a masc. noun in the gen. 
sing., and in the dat. and the voc. sing, of 
both genders ; also in the nom. and ace. pi. 



when the noun ends in a slender consonant 
— t)ó X)&n, a white cow; itiac An pi|\ tfiOiji, 
(the) son of the big man ; capaiU, ííiójia, big 
horses. 

(g) A verb is aspirated — (1) in the 
imperfect, the simple past, and the con- 
ditional (ordinary forms) ; (2) after ni, not ; 
triAt if; triAjt, as ; fut (or f AfO before, and 
all the compounds of |\o (§ 278) ; (3) after 
the relative particle a, e.g., t)UAit fé, he 
struck; ní t)éií) fé, he will not be. 

(h) The word following Ida and t><yó 
(the past tense and conditional of if) is 
usually aspirated — to<\ rhAit Viom, / liked. 

(i) The simple prepositions (except 
as, Af, 5AH, 50, 1, and te) cause aspi- 
ration— t>o p^t>|\Ai5, áeAgAn. 

(j) The Numeral adjectives, Aon, 
one ; >oa, £wo ; cSat), /2rs£ ; u^eAf , third, 
cause aspiration ; t>a óApAtt, £wo horses ; 
An óéAT) t)viACAiU, £Ae /£rs£ boy. 

Eclipsis. 

22. Eclipsis is the suppression o± the 
sound of the initial consonant of a word by 
prefixing another consonant whose sound 
is substituted. 

23. Only seven consonants can be 
eclipsed, viz. : t>, c, X), p, 5, p, u. Each con- 
sonant has its own eclipsing letter. 



25. b is eclipsed by m, as a mbó, their cow. 

c „ „ „ 5, „ *r 5CAp*U, our hor6e 

t) „ ,, „ n, „ Á-p tvoÁti, our poem» 

F „ „ „ 1% „ 1 bput, in blood. 

5 „ „ „ "5>*» a n 5 é, their goose. 

p„ „ ,, b, „ * bpÁipéAp, their paper, 

c „ „ ,, t>, n ^ t)ca|V6, their bull. 

Rules for Eclipsis, 

26. (#) The possessive adjectives plural 

— Ajt, our ; imft, yow ; A, £AaV, cause 
eclipsis : a rnt>AT), íAeir 6oa& 

(6) The article eclipses in the gen. 
pi. (both genders) — tAtriA nA ttpeAtW (the) 
hands of the men. 

(c) The simple prepositions followed 
by the article eclipse the initial of singular 
nouns — Afi Ati scapaXXj on the horse ; as aw 
GpeAjt, at the man. 

*Oo and t>e followed by the article may aspirate : t>o'n 
feAji, or t>o'n bpeAp, to the man. 

(d) The Numeral adjectives fe^óc, 
oóu, tiAOi, and *oeiC (7, 8, 9, 10), and their 
compounds 27, 28, &c, cause eclipsis— 
feACu rntoA, sevew corns. 

(e) The initial of a verb is eclipsed 

after An, ca, Ca (not) go, t>á, mti|\A (tmitiA), 
nAC, and the relative a preceded by a 

♦ Only the n is written. See large Grammar on this point. 



preposition— cá toptnt f é, where is he ? haó 
ttpmt f é arm, is he not sick ? 

Insertion of n, u, and ft. 

27. (a) When a word begins with a 

vowel, ti is prefixed in all positions, in 
which a consonant would be eclipsed unless 
the preceding word ends in n — aj\ n~Attán ; 
f eACu ri-AfAit ; but, a\í ah tnfce. 

(5) Prepositions (except t>o and 
T>e) ending in a vowel prefix n to the 
poss. adjs. a (= Ms, Aer, tfAeir), Afi, t)\i|\ : 
le n-A rhAtAitt, tw^ /wk mother. 

28. (a) The article prefixes c to masc. 
nouns beginning with a vowel in the nom. 
and ace. sing. — aví u-aúai|\ ; An u-AfAt. 

(6) If a noun begins with f followed 
by a vowel or by t, n, or j\, the article 
prefixes u in the nom. and ace. fem. and 
the gen. masc. sing. — An uf ml, the eye ; An 
uf|tOri, the nose; 05 ah ufA5Ai|\u, the priest's 
house. 

(c) u is often prefixed to f after 
words ending in n : Aon ufuit AmÁm. 

29. Particles which neither aspirate 
nor eclipse, and which end in a vowel, 

prefix n to words beginning with a vowel. 
e.g., A 9 her, 50, te> T)At\A (uaj\íia), fé, c|\í, 



8 

tiA {the j in gen. sing. fern, and in the nom. 
ace. and dat. pi.) — a ti-AtAifl, her father ; 
fé ti-AfAit, six asses. 

30. Attenuation is the process of making 
a broad consonant slender. This is usually 
denoted by placing an "1" immediately 
before the consonant : e.g., t>Af, t>Aif {death). 

33. Syncope is the elision of an unac- 
cented vowel or digraph from the last 
syllable of a word of more than one syl- 
lable, whenever the word is lengthened by 
an inflection beginning with a vowel : e.g., 
coT)t,Airn, / sleep, from cot)Ait ; rnAiDne 
from tr)AiT)in {morning). 

THE ARTICLE. 

37. In Irish there is only one article, An, 
which corresponds to the English definite 
article, " the." In the singular the form for 
all the cases is An, except the gen. fern, 
which is riA. In all the cases of the plural 
the form is nA. 

39. The prepositions 1, m, or Ann, in, 
te, with, take f before the article, e.g., inf 
An teAt)Afi, in the book ; teif An ttpeAfi, 
with the ma? i. 

In Munster o, t>o, and *oe, and some- 
times others (un<3, xMge, etc.) take f before 



the plural article — *oof íia bUAii), to the 

cows. 

40. The initial changes produced by 

the article : Refer to §§ 21 (b) ; 26 (b), (c) ; 
28 to), (b) ; 29. 

THE NOUN. 

41. There are only two genders in Irish, 
the masculine and the feminine. 

42. Masculine Nouns : to) Names and 
occupations of males ; (b) Personal agents 
ending in 01|\, Aijte, uroe or aó : (c) diminu- 
tives in in or An, and abstract nouns in Af ; 
(á) Many nouns ending in a broad con- 
sonant. 

43. Feminine Nouns : (a) Names and 
designation of females ; (b) Names of 
countries and rivers ; (c) Nouns of two or 
more syllables ending in aCu or 05 ; 
{d) Abstract nouns formed from bhe geni- 
tive singular feminine of adjectives ; (e) 
Monosyllabic nouns ending in a slender 
consonant. 

44. In Irish there are five cases — the 

Nominative, the Accusative, the Genitive, 
the Dative (or Prepositional) and the 
Vocative. 



10 

52. There are five declensions of nouns. 
The declensions are distinguished by the 
inflection of the genitive singular. 

First Declension. 

53. All the nouns of the first declension 
are masculine, and end in a broad con- 
sonant. 

54. The genitive sing, is formed by 
attenuation § 30 ; the dat. is the same as 
the nom., and the voc. is the same as the 
gen. The nom. pi. is the same as the gen. 
sing., and the gen. pi. is the same as the 
nom. sing. 

55. tMx), a boat. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Nom. & Ace. bÁ*o, a boat bÁit>, boats 

Gen. bÁit), of a boat bÁ*o, of boats 

Dat. bÁ*o, (in) a boat bÁx>Aib, (in boats 

Voc. a bÁix), O boat ! & bÁt>A, O boats ! 

56. Words of more than one syllable 
ending in aC or eAC form their gen. sing. 
by changing aC or eAC into ai$ or 15, 
respectively. 

60. Vowel Changes. 

Change é^ or eu in nom. sing, into éi in gen. sing. 

o (short. „ „ „ „ in ,, „ ,, 

»1 10 ° r eA fl »> >> t> 1 If » M 

Change i& into éi in i^r* c, cli^b, ili^bt, 51ALI, f ciaXt, 
*m^c, and a few others. 



11 



Singular. 

62. N. & A. tn&|\c&c, rider, fe&ft, a man, 
Gen. m&ftc&ig pp 

Dat. tn&fic&c f e ^ 

Plural. 



Voc. 



Nom. & Ace. mAjtGMj; 
Gen. ttia|acac 
Dat. mA|icACAil3 

VOC. A TTl&ftC&CA 






CÍ1I11C 

cnoc 
a crtuic 



cntnc 

cnoc 
cnoc&ib 
& cnoc& 



Irregularities in the First Declension. 

64. ITIac, a son ; and bnvó, food, become tnic and 
bit) in gen. sing. 

65. Aon&c, a fair; t)Ofi&f, a door; Ainjje&t, an 
angel; boc-<yp, a road; rriAT>jA&T>, a dog; flAbji<yó, a 
chain, and m&figAt), a market, become Aonc&ige (or 
AoriAige), t)oifvfe, Atri^le, bóic^e, m& , o)i&iT)e, fWbfWóe, 
and triApgAi-oe in nom. pi. 

66. The following nouns take a in the nom. pi. : 
bjuiAc, a brink; c&o^, a berry; *oeofi, a tear; pe&rm, 
a pen ; f eot>, a jewel ; f me&y, a blackberry ; ub&tt, an 
apple (ublA). 

67. The following take c& in nom. pi. : feob, a 
sail; ceob, music; né&l, a cloud; ycetX, sl story; 
cuah, a harbour ; ce&t>, a hundred ; Uori, a net. 



Second Declension. 

71. All nouns of the second declension 
end in consonants, and are feminine. The 
gen. sing, is formed by adding e ; (if the 
noun ends in a broad consonant, it must 



12 



be attenuated §30), and if the last con- 
sonant is C, it is changed into 5 (except 
in words of one syllable). The dat. sing, is 
got by dropping the e of the gen. The 
voc. sing, is like the nom. The nom. pi. is 
formed from the nom. sing, by adding a or 
e ; the gen. pi. is like the nom. sing. 

78, For vowel changes in gen. sing., refer 
to § 60, to which add, ia becomes ei. 



N.& A. 

Gen. 
Dat. 
Voc. 



N.&A, 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Voc. 



Singular. [woman. 

tÁifi, a hand. géAg, a branch. c&ilteAc, an old 



tÁiriie 

ÍÁ11TI 



tÁiti 



5 ei 5 e 
5 él 5 

Pluralí 

5 éA 5 



& c&iVle&c 



CAitteAÓA 
CAitte^c 
CAitXe&c&ib 
a CAitte^c^ 



87. The following nouns take e^nriA in nom. pi: — 
ctnf , a cause ; ttnb, an herb ; béim, a stroke ; T>tiAif , 
a prize ; ténn, a leap ; Áic, a place ; y coit, a school ; 
céitn, a step; u&iji, an hour ; fjtÁix), a street; pÁi|\c, a 
field ; jreif, a festival, a feis. 

88. The following take e&cA in nom. pi. :— obAip 
(oib^eACA), a work ; tia^, a letter ; ub, an egg (also 
mbe) ; p&it)if\, a prayer ; f jaáix), a street. 

89. The noms. pi. of coitt, a wood ; ui]s a coun- 
try; AjyMt), a face; rpé^ji, the sky, are, coiUxe, 



13 
Third Declension, 

91. The third declension includes (1) 
personal nouns ending in 01]\ or éi|t (all 
masculine), (2) derived nouns in aóu (all 
feminine), (3) verbal nouns ending in aCc 
and AtfiAin, (4) most nouns ending in u, (5) 
other nouns ending in consonants which 
are, as a rule, masculine or feminine, 
according as they end in broad or slender 
consonants. 

92. The genitive singular is formed by 
adding a. If the last vowel of the nom, is 
1, preceded by a broad vowel, the 1 is 
usually dropped in the gen., as uoit, gen., 
uoLa. The vowels of the nom. often 
undergo a change in the gen. These 
changes are the reverse of the vowel changes 
in the 1st and 2nd declensions (§ 60.) 

Change — 

1, 10 or ei (short) in nom. into e& in the gen. 
u or ui ,, „ „ o „ „ „ 

©^ 1) J? » ©A 9J }} J> 

93. The nominative plural is usually the 
same as the gen. sing. ; but personal nouns 
ending in 01|\ and éi|\ add í to the nom. 
sing, t/o form nom. pi. 



96. 



14 



Examples. 



Nom. & Ace. 
Gen. 
Dat. 

Voc. 



Nom, 



& Ace. 
Gen. 
Dat. 



en AIT), 

a bone. 



cnAtn 
en Árii & 
en Árii 
a en Árii 



cnAiriA 
en Árii 



cpior, 
a belt. 



bÁT)Ó!]S bllACAltt, 

a boatman, a boy. 



Singular, 

CfUOf 

cj\eAfA 

CjUOf 
A CjAIOf 

Plural, 

CjieAfA 
CJAlOf 



bÁT)óip 

bÁ*OÓ|AA 
bÁT)ÓlJ\ 
A bÁt)Ó1)\ 



bÁt)óijAÍ 
bÁt)ói|\(í) 



cnÁriiAib c|\eAfAib bÁ*oói|AÍb 



Voc. a cnÁriiA a ófieAf a a bÁ*oói]\í 



bllACAlbb 
buACAtÍA 
bllACAltb 
A buACAltt 



bt1ACAlbbí 
btlACAlVl(í) 
bllACAlttíb 
A bUACAlVlí 



104. The following nouns form their noms. pl. 
by adding nnA to the gen. sing. : — Am, time ; ffuji, a 
stream; T)]unm, a back; 5i\eitn, a piece; cteAf, a 
trick; aha™, a soul. 



Fourth Declension, 

106. The fourth declension includes (1) 
diminutives in in, (2) most nouns ending in 
a vowel. All the cases of the singular are 
alike. The nom. plur. is formed by adding 
í (if the nom. sing, ends in e the e is 
dropped). 

Singular. Plural. 

ageAjWA cijeA|\nAÍ 

CljeAjWA Cl^eAJUlAÍ 

cigeAf\nA cijjeAfWAÍfa 
a tit;eA|AnA a cijeAfuiAi 



Nom. & Ace. cAitín cAitíní 
Gen. cAibín cAibíní 
Dat. CAitín CAitíníb 
Voc. a cAitin a cAiUni 



f5 



113. b<Mle, a town ; léine, a shirt ; mite, a thou- 
sand ; ceine, a fire; caoi, a method; t>aoi, a fool; 
fAoi, a wise person; t)]w>i, a druid ; and *oIaoi, a 
curl, make noms. pi., bAiíce, teince(ACA), tnitce, 
ceinue(&cA), cAoiúe, t)Aoice, psoice, t)j\Aoice, and 
•oÍAoice. 

Nouns ending in t>e or §e take ée in nom. pi., 

e.g., cfioit>e, Cf\oi*óce. 

The noms. pi. of x>uine and ní*ó are *0A0ineand 
neice. 



The Fifth Declension. 

116. Most nouns of this declension end 
in a vowel, and are, with a few exceptions, 
feminine. The gen. sing, is usually formed 
by the addition of n, nn, or ó (broad). The 
dat. sing, is formed by attenuating the 
gen. § 30, except in those nouns which add 
C, when the dat. is like the nom. (usually). 

119. The nom. pi. is formed (1) by add- 
ing a to gen. sing., e.g., peAfifA, ctnfte, 
and most nouns that form gen. sing, in C ; 
(2) by adding e to gen. sing., accompanied 
with syncope (§ 33), e.g., gAitme, CAifme, 
tiAittroe, Aittne, the plurals of gAt)A, ca^ia, 
tiAttiA, and At) ; (3) by attenuating the gen. 
sing.,e.#., tACAin, pdx), CAOijng, corhujtfAin. 

The gen. pi. is like the gen. sing. 



16 



Nom. & Ace. 

Gen. 

DAT. 

Voc. 



Singular. 

gAbArm cajiat) 
gAbAirm cajaait) 

A §AbA A CA]AA 



CACA01J1 

CACAoi]\eAc 

CACA01f\ 
A CAtAOIfA 



€h|\eArm 
éipinn 
a 6i|\e. 



NOM. & Acc. 
Gen. 

DAT. 

Voc. 



Plural. 

gAibne CAijvoe cAÚAOifieACA 
gAbArm CAfiAt) CACAoifieAc 
gAibrnb CAijVoib cACAoif\eACAib 
a gAibne a CAifvoe a CACAOijAeACA 



IRREGULAR NOUNS 



132. 


Nom., Acc.,Voc. 


Gen, 


Dat. 


Sing. 
Plur. 


acaa|a, a father 

A1Cf\e, A1C|A6ACA 


ACAjA 
A1C|AeAC 


ACA1JA 
A1C|AeACAlb 


Sing. 
Plur. 


be&n, a woman 
mnÁ 


trmÁ 
bAti 


wriA^. 


Sing. 
Plur. 


bó, a cow 
bA 


bó 
bó 


bum 
biiAib 


Sing. 
Plur. 


tÁ, a day 
ÍAece (atica) 


i,Ae 
l/Aece, tÁ 


tÁ, tó 

ÍAecib 


Sing. 
Plur. 


mi, a month 
miofA 


mi of a 
miof 


mi, mif 
miofAib 


Sing. 
Plur. 


fciAri, a knife 
-pee An a 


feme 
fciATi 


fciAin, -pem 
fceAHAib 


Sing. 
Plur. 


f U Ab, a mountain \ téibe 
fléibce ftéibce 


ftéib, fliAb 
fbéibcib 


Sing. 


cig, ceAÓ ; a house 


ci£e 


C15, ceAC 


Plur. 


ogee 


cijce, ceAC 


cijcib 


Sing. 


T)ia, God. 


T)é 


T)1A. 



*ln Munster K A ^ A is usually unflected in the singular. 



17 



tTIÁcAijt, bjiÁúAi^, t>eAjVbpÁt<Mp, are declined like 
&cai]a. The gen. of T>ei|Vbf iú|\, a sister, is 'oeijVbfeAÚAji. 

After numerals use mi and tÁ; e.g., occ mi, 
fé tÁ. 

DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 



First Declension. 

134 This declension includes all adjec- 
tives ending in a broad consonant. The 
vowel changes in gen. sing, are the same 
as for nouns §§ 60, 78. 



N. & Ace. móp 



Examples, 
ttió|t, big j;e&t, bright 

Singular. 
Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 



T)í jie&c, straight 



Masc. Fem, 



Gen. 
Dat. 

Voc. 



N.& Ace, 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Voc. 



moip 
mop 



mop 

menpe 

móip 



moip mop 



mopA 
mop 
móp a 
mójAA 



5 eAt 
5* 



5 ite 



Tnpe&c 

T>ipi§ 

X)i|\eAc 
•oipig 



t)ipe&c 
T)ipige 

•oipeAC 



Plural, 

5 eAt 



*oi]ieACA 
tripe^c 

T)ípe&CA 

t)if\eACA 



Second Declension. 



142. All adjectives ending in a slender 
consonant, except those in AtriAit, belong 
to the second declension. 



18 



In the singular all the cases, both masc. 
and fern., are alike, except the gen. fern., 
which is formed by adding e. 



In the plural all the cases, both masc. 
and fern., are formed by adding e to the 
nom. sing., except the gen., which is like 
the nom. sing. 

Example. 

m&\t, good. 



Singular. 
masc. fern. 

N. & A. rriAit m&\t 

Gen. rriAit tnAite 

Dat. in Ait rriAit 

Voc. rriAit triAit 



Plural. 

both genders 

mAite 
rriAit 
tnAite 
tnAite 



Third Declension. 



146. The third declension includes all 
adjectives ending in AriiAit. 

In both numbers the two genders are 
alike. The gen. sing, and the nom., ace, 
dat., and voc. pi. are formed by adding 
a (with syncope § 33). 



19 
Example. 

peAjtAttiAtt, manly. 
Singular. Plural. 

1ST. & A. £6Aft Atll Alt peAfiAriitA 

Gen. ^eAfiAriitA feAfiAriiAit 

DAT. pCAjt Aril Alt peAftAriltA 

Yog. peAjtAtiiAit peAjVAriitA. 

Fourth Declension. 

148. All adjectives ending in a vowel 
belong to the fourth declension. They 
have no inflection ; all cases, sing, and 
plural, are alike. 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

153. In Irish there are two comparisons 
(I) the comparison of equality, (2) the 
comparison of superiority, 

The comparison of equality is formed by 
putting corn before she adjective, and te 
(or teif before article) after it. If a verb 
occurs in the second portion of the sen- 
tence, Aguf must be user/ instead of te. 

CÁ SeAgAti cotri t<Sroi]\ te SéAtniíf . John 
is as strong as James. 

Hit fé corn Lái'Oift Agtif t>i fé. He is no* 

as strong as he was. 



20 

155. The comparison of superiority has 
three degrees — the positive, the compara- 
tive, and the superlative. The comparative 
and superlative have the same form as 
the genitive singular feminine of the 
adjective. 

The comparative is usually preceded by 
níof (ni(t)) + if ), and followed by tiA (than); 
if a verb occurs in the second portion of 
sentence, use x\& triAjt. 

Ca aw St^N *tf°r Site tiA aw geAÍAó. 
The sun is brighter than the moon. We can 
also say ; if gite ah gfUAti tiA An geAtAC. 
Ca fé nTof tAiT)t\e Atioif tiA triAfi a W fé 
fttAtii. -ffie fcs stronger now than ever he was. 

If the comparison is completely past in 
the mind of the speaker, tii t>A is used 
instead of nTof, but if the present time is 
not completely excluded, niof may be used. 

1f T)0ic Uom 50 jtAit) fé níof (ní t)A) 
Uvrotte tiA SeAgAti. / think that he was 
stronger than John ; but, t)A t)0iC tiom 50 
|\Ait) fé ní X)A tAix)|\e tiA SeAgAii. / thought 
that he was stronger than John. 

159. The superlative degree must always 
be preceded by the verb if. (t)A is used in 
the past, and Da* in the conditional.) The 
highest hill in Ireland. An cnoc if Aoijvoe 
1 n-Oi|tmn. 



21 



IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES. 



Positive 



Comp. & 
Super. 



beAg, small Uija 

j?At>A, long ^tn-oe, fiA 

móp, big mó 

ot,c, bad meAf a 

mAit, ^wd F e ^PP 

geApp, ,$7z6>r/ gioppA 

bpeÁj, ;?//£ bpeÁtjcA 



Positive 



Comp. & 
Super. 



mime, often mmici, rrnoncA 
ce, warm ceo 
cipim, dry uioprriA 
5pÁn*oA,^/y 5pÁirme 
Ápt), A/^vfe AOip*oe, Aipt)e 
•oóca ) ^>r^5- foocAite 
t)óig f able voóigce. 



167. NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 





Cardinals 




Ordinals 


1. 


Aon — AiriÁin, or, — 


1st. 


cóat) — (AcmriiAT)). 


2. 


t)Á — 


2nd. 


*OApA , CAjATIA , 

'OÓtTIA'Ó 


3. 


Cpí — 


3rd. 


cpírriAt) — , cpeAf — 


4. 


ceitpe — 


áth. 


CeACpATTIAT) 


5. 


CÚ15— 


5th. 


CÚ15ÍT1AT) — , CÚ15- 
eA*ó — 


ft 


r é— 


6th. 


féiriAX) — -, ^eifeAt)- 


7. 


peAcc— 


7th. 


feAcuiriAT) — 


8. 


occ — 


8th. 


OCUTTIAT) 


9. 


T1A01 — 


9th. 


nAOTTIAT) 


10. 


•oeic— 


10th. 


*OeiCTTIA*Ó , T)eAC- 

triAt) — 


11. 


Aon — *oéA5. 


llth. 


AomriAt) — "ooaj. 


12. 


*OÁ — -óóaj;. 


12th. 


tJApA "OÓAg. 


13. 


cpí — -oéAg. 


13th. 


CpiltlAT) — XDÓAg. 


14. 


ceicpe — -oéAg. 


14th. 


c e ac p atti a*ó — t) é a^ . 


15. 


CÚ15 — "OeAg. 


15th. 


cínjrhAt) — "oéA^. 


16. 


fé — •oéAg. 


16th. 


féiriA*ó — *oéA5. 


1 n 

All 


feAcc — X)é&-§. 


17th. 


peACCTTIA'Ó DéA^. 


18. 


occ — t)é^5. 


18th. 


OCCTTIAt) "OéAJ. 


19. 


tiAOi — 'oéAg. 


19th. 


HAOTTlAt) T)é&-§. 


20. 


pce — 


20th. 


pCTtlAt) — , pceAt)- 



22 



Cardinals — con. 




Ordinals — con. 


21. 


Aon — if pee. 


21st. 


AOtlttlAt) — pceAt) 
(fici-o). 


22. 


■oÁ- — if pice. 


22nd. 


t»AfA •piCeAT)(f1C1'0). 


30. 


•oeic — if -pice. 


30th. 


■oeictriAt) f 1CeAT> 

(f1C1t>). 


31. 


Aon—'oeAg if floe. 


31st. 


AOtlTTlAt) -oéAg Af 

f1C1"0. 


40. 


■OACAT) , "OÁ f1C1t> — - 


40th. 


'OACA'OmA'Ó . T)Á 

/ 

pci'oe&'ó. 


50. 


■oeic — if ■oaca'o. 


50th. 


'oeicni^'ó— 1-p -oaóvo. 


60. 


Cfi flCIt) — 


60th. 


cjaí pci-oexvo — 


70. 


■oeic — if cf í f icto. 


70th. 




SO. 


ceiú|\e f icto — 


80th. 


ceicyie pci*oeAt> — 


90. 


■oeic — 1-p ceiéfe f icm 


. 90th. 


-oeictri&T) — ip ceitpe 


100. 


céAt>. — 


100th. 


cé&*orh&'ú — 


101. 


A011 A$tlf céAt), 


101st. 


AOTltTI&T)— -Agiif cé&t). 


102. 


■OÁ — AgUf CéAT). 


102nd. 


*o^f\& — ^5«f cé&t). 



In the above list the dash indicates the 
position of the noun : thus, aoii CApAtt 
AtfiAiti, or simply, CApAtt, one horse ; *óa 
Cap Alt, two horses ; t)A Cap Alt DéAg, 
twelve horses. The termination rhAt) in 
the ordinals is pronounced u (oo). The 
cardinals may be used in counting (without 
expressing the noun), thus ; a H-Aon, a t>6, 
a ujti, a ceAtAim a cthg, a fé, a feACu, A 

ÍIOCU, A Í1A01, A T)eiC, A tl-AOtl T)éA5, A X)6 

t)éA5, A uttí t)éA5, ^ ii-Aon if piCe, 

etc. Notice a 'oó and a ceAtAitt. 



23 



The Personal Numerals.* 



•otnne 


1 


person. 


T>AÚAT) (^Ápélt)) 




beiju; 


2 


persons. 


tnnrie 40 


persons 


C]HÚ|A 


3 


>> 


x>tniie Agtif *qa- 




ceAC-pA^ 


4 


>j 


CAT) 41 


M 


CtJU^eAjA 


5 


» 


t)eic rminne } 




-peifeAjA 


6 


>y 


*oeicneAl!)A|i f 




mój\feife&ft) 

feACCAfA Í 


7 




>5 




t> 


1f T)AÚAT) ) 




OCCAJA 


8 


» 


Aomrie dóaj 




riAoribAft 


9 


n 


1f DACAT) 51 


» 


*oeicneAli)Af\ 


10 


ii 


r]\í *óiiirie t)éA5 




Aoirme T)éA5 


11 


)5 


1f 'OACA'O 53 


») 


•oÁfiéAj; 


12 


í> 


cfií j?ici*o 'otnne 60 


» 


cjaí T>inne 'óéAg 


13 


») 


13111116 Agtlf Cflí 




ceicjie *óuine 






pci*o 61 


)> 


•óéAg 


14 


>* 


beijAC if z]\\ 




fe&cc rrotnne 






]?icit> 62 


>> 


X)6&§ 


17 


>> 


cóa'o *otiine 100 


J' 


pce t)tnne 


20 


)) 


•otnne A^jti^ 




•otnne Agtif pce 21 


>> 


céAt) 101 


)> 


bei|\c I]" pce 


22 


)) 


bei]^c A^iif 




u|aí 'ótntieif pce23 


)) 


céA'o 102 


>> 



179. The Possessive Adjectives are mo, 

my ; x)0, thy ; a, his, or Aer ; aji, our ; tnijt, 
2/(9^^- ; a, £Aew\ The o of mo and xyo is 
elided before a vowel or f ; e.g., rnVtAift, 
my father. X)o usually becomes u' before a 
vowel : e.g., z AtAif\, thy father. 

195. The Demonstrative Adjectives are 

f o (or feo), this ; f ah, foiti (or fin), tlmt ; 
and tra ? that or yonder. 

* From Father O'Leary's mion-óAinnr; 



24 

The forms in brackets are used after 
slender vowels or slender consonants. 

The article must always be used before 
the noun with these adjectives ; e.g., aw 
X)eAW f o, this woman ; An peA|\ f An, that 
man ; nA pi-|t f eo, these men. 

197. The Indefinite Adjectives are &on, 

any ; 6i5in(u), íom^ certain ; eite, o^Aer ; 
tnte, all, whole ; pé, whatever ; and the 
phrase, aj\ tut, any a£ aW. 

Aon and pé precede their nouns, the 
others follow them. Aon tA, any day ; An 
mime eite, the other person. 

201. The Distributive Adjectives are 

5AC, saC Aon, each; gAó jte, ewry oiAer, 
ewry second ; (An) tnte, $aC tnte (or Ctnte), 
every ; $aC tÁ, each day ; An tnte f eAf\, every 
man ; gAC fie mtotiA-oAm, e#e?2/ second year. 

THE PRONOUN. 

204. The Conjunctive Personal Pro- 
nouns* are mé, /; uu, thou ; fé, Ae ; fi, 
she ; f mn, we ; fit), 2/om ; piAT), iA^y. 

The Disjunctive Personal Pronouns* are 

mé or me, /, me ; tw (uu), thou, thee ; 6, Ae, 
him ; f, s/^, Aer ; f inn, we, us ; fit), you ; 
1AT), they, them. 

* For use of these pronouns refer to Syntax — The Pronoun. 



25 



The emphatic forms are : mife, myself) 
utif A, thyself; feifeAti, himself; fife ? herself; 
fmne, ourselves; fit)fe, yourselves; fiAT>f ah, 
themselves. 

216. Fifteen of the simple prepositions 
combine with the personal pronouns to 
form Prepositional Pronouns. The most 
important of these are the combinations of 
as, Aft, 'oo, te, 0, ^é (faoi), and ótm. 



A5, at, with 


Af\, on 


T)o, to 


Le, with 


AgAirijat me 


o|\m, on me 


*oom, me 


Viotn, me 


ajau, ,, thee 


ojic, „ thee 


-otnc, thee 


teAc, thee 


Aige, ,, him 


aij\, „ him 


-oo, him 


teif, him 


aici, ,, her 


tn-pci ,, her 


-oi, her 


téi(ce), her 


A^Amrij, us 


ofiAirm,, us 


-oúirm,us i linn, us 


AjAtto, ,, you 


o|\Aib „ you 


*oit) you Lib, you 


acu, „them 


opcA ,,them 


0Ó1Í), themi Leo, them 



Ó, from. 


pé, pAoi, under 


Cun, towards. 






Connaught. 


Munster. 


UAim 


fútn 


cujatti 


cújAm 


UA1C 


fÚC 


CtlJJAC 


cú^au 


UA1T) 


f é, p&oi 


ctlige 


ctíige 


UA1C1 


fÚ1C1 


CU1C1 


ctnce 


uAinn 


fúirm 


CUTJAWn 


cújAinn 


UAlb 


pGnb 


CUJAlb 


CÚ^Alb 


UACA 


fÚCA 


CUCA 


CÚCA 



26 

235. The Relative Pronouns are a, who, 
which, that; nAC, who not, vjhich not, etc. ; 
50, that; pé, cit>é, poé, whosoever, whatever; 
and a (causing eclipsis), what, that which, 
all that : e.g., ah veAfV nAC rnt>ei > o Ann — the 
man who will not be there; An oeAn 50 ttr/int 
411 t)0 A1C1 — the woman who has the cow. 

N.B. After a superlative, or any phrase 
equivalent to a superlative, "oA CoÁ|\ in past 
teDse) is used for who, which, that t)éAtt> 
ipAX) "otnc 5^0 tnte nit> t>a ojnm, (or, $aC a 
ortnl) AgAm — I shall give you everything 
that I have. 

238. The Demonstrative Pronouns are 

é (í) reo, this ; é (í) fm or fAn, that ; é (í) 
fii3t), that (yonder) ; ia>o f o, these ; iat) f aíi 
(fm,) those ; ia>o riut), íAo^ (yonder). 

X)o X)'é rm SeA$Án. That was John. Cé 
n-iAT) fo ? Tf/io are táese ? An é riiro 
ComAf ? 7> that {person yonder) Thomas ? 
•DéAnrAi-ó fAn An gnó. 7%a£ will do (the 
business). 

243. The Interrogative Pronouns are 

cé (cia), who, which; cad, cait>6, ceAjfo 
(c^eAc), what; cé teif ? wAose ? <>.#., Cat) uá 
A5AC ? TF#otf Aave ycu ? Cé acu if 
reA-^ ? JFM^ 0/ ^em w £fc tór ? Ce 
leir An teAOAjl ? Fte is the book ? 



27 
THE VERB. 

247. In Irish there are two conjugations. 
They are distinguished by the formation 
of the future tense. In the first conjuga- 
tion the 1st pers. sing, of the future ends 
in pAT) or peAt), and in the second conjuga- 
tion it ends in (e)óóAt). 

Each of the conjugations has three 
forms (1) the Synthetic, (2) the Analytic, 
(3) the Autonomous. 

249. The synthetic form is that in which 
the persons are expressed by inflections. 

In the analytic there is only one form, 
and the persons are expressed by means of 
pronouns. 

In the autonomous form the action of 
the verb is merely expressed, without 
mentioning the subject. 

253. There are three moods — the Imper- 
ative, the Indicative and the Subjunctive. 

The Imperative has only one tense — the 
present. The Indicative has five tenses— 
the present, the imperfect, the past, the 
future, and the conditional (or secondary 
future. The Subjunctive has two tenses— 
the present and the past. 



28 



261. In both conjugations there are two 
sets of terminations — (I) the broad, (2) the 
slender. The first set is used with verbs 
ending in a broad consonant; the second 
with those which end in a slender con- 
sonant. 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 

tTlot, praise. btiAit, strike, beat. 



SING. 
1st mot Aim 
2nd mot 



IMPERATIVE MOOD 

SING. 



PLURAL. 

(moi xMtnif 
; mot Am 
motAró 

3rd motAX) fé tno tAi-oíf 

( A'QAQIf) 
AUTONOMOUS, motcA 



buAiti 
btiAit 



PLURAL. 

btiAit imif 
btiAiteAm 
btiAitit) 

buAi teAt) f é buAi ti'oíf. 



= I 



buAitueAjt, 



INDICATIVE MOOD, 
Present Tense. 



SING. PLURAL. 

mot Aim mo Wimi-o 

motAvn mot Ann pb 

mot Ann ye motAi*o 

AUTON., motcAi 



lELA-) 

riVE, ) 



Rela- 

T 



mo tAnn-p (C.) 
motAnn (M.) 



SING. PLURAL. 

btiAitim btiAitimvo 

btiAitvn btJAiteAnn pb 

biiAit eAnn f é buAiti-o. 

btiAitceAn. 

btiAiteATvnr (C) 
btiAiteATvn (M.) 



29 



Past Tense. 



SING. PLURAL. 

TftoL&r trio t&m&p 

rhot&iW&íf) irio WbAjA 
tftot -pé tftouvoAn 

AUTON., moWó. 



SING. PLURAL. 

bu&iteAjr buAiteArnAn 
buAit/if (if) btixvit e&b&)A 
buAit fé buAitexm<yn 

bu&itexvó. 



imperfect Tense. 



triot&irm 



thot^irrvir 

iiiot<vt> pb 



TTIotcÁ 

irioÍAf) fé tiiotxvmí 



AUTON., motuAi 



bu&itirm btt&i luníf 

btJAiiceÁ bu&itexvú pb 
buAitexvó yé buAibi*ov 

btiAitcí. 



Future Tense. 



motfAt) mol yAirnfo 
m otfAin m oÍ£AVó f ib 
mot-p&it) fé Tnol/p&iT) 

AUTON., motrA 



RELA- ( niot£A£ (C.) 
TIVE I TTlQt pxM-Ó (M.) 



buxvitr 



e&*o 



buAit/pmro 
bu&itrvó pb 



buA1L£1t\ 

buAibrró fé bu&itrvo 

btiAitreAr (C.) 
btHMtpMX) (M.) 



CONDITIONAL. 



TTiotfAinn ThotrAinrír 
ThobrÁ^ íhobrAi) pb 

rhobrAjó yé thotr^^oíf 



buAi lfirm buAibptrnr 
biiAibreÁ buAibre^ó pb 
bu AitreAt) f é buAitrioír 



AUTON., TnolfAÍ (-pM*óe) 



buxMÍrí, 



30 



mot AT) 
mot,Ain 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD, 

Present Tense. 

mot Mm i*o 



moÍAit) rib 

moWiii) ) , a 
-— . v ire motAiT) 



biiAi teAt) 

bl1Altlf\ 
bt1AltlT) 

btiAite*(M.) 



buAitimiT) 
btiAiVm rib 

ré buAiti*o 



AUTON., motcAfi. 



buAitceAfi, 



Past Tense. 



motAirm mo t Aim if 
motcÁ mob at) rib 

mob at) ré mobAiT)ir 

AUTON., motcAoi 

Verbal Noun, motA-ó. 

Verbal \ 
Adjective > 



m 



oIca. 



btiAitirm btiAi bimif 

btiAitueÁ btiAibeA*6 rib 

biiAibeAo ré btiAitiT)ir 

btiAibci. 

btlAbAT). 

btiAitce. 



The Analytic Forms for the tenses 
given above are exactly like the forms of 
the 3rd sing, of the various tenses. The 
analytic form is not used in the 1st per. 
sing, present tense, and is rarely found in 
the 1st and 2nd pers. sing, imperfect tense, 
The second 1 in the terminations irnvo. 
<yimro, etc., is not long in Connaught. 



* These are the correct literary forms. They are always used in 
Minister, except before vowels, when the other form is used (x>=^). 
The forms motAi-o and duaiLix) are really the older forms of the 3rd 
sing, present tense indie. 



31 



276. The past, the imperfect, and the 
conditional are usually preceded by the 
particle T)0 when no other particle precedes 
them. In the spoken language t)o is often 
omitted, except when the verb begins 
with a vowel or p, or an unaspirahle conso- 
nant. The T)' has become so closely united 
to the verb, when the latter begins with a 
vowel, that we frequently find it aspirated, 
just as if the verb began with this conso- 
nant, e.g., nío|\ í/ót fé (for níotx ót fé) — 
He did not drink. 



The Relative form is the same as the 
3rd pers. sing, in all the tenses, except the 
present and the future (in Connaught). 



278. The particle used formerly before 
the past tense was fto. Jt is now never 
used by itself, but it occurs in the follow- 
ing compounds : — 



Ait, whether {aw + |\o); sujt, that (50 + |\o); 
cá\\, where (ca + fio) ; níojt, not ; tnufian (° r 
ttitmA|0, unless ; tiAfl, that not ; TX&fl, of all 
those who (ivhom), to ivhom ; tej\, by whom, 
by which ; cé'ft, who was. (This last form 
is used only with the verb if.) 



32 



282. In the first conjugation the u in all 
terminations beginning with this letter is 
generally aspirated, except when the stem 
ends in one of the consonants, T), n, u, t, f, 
t, c, i>, 5. 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 

291. The second conjugation comprises 
(1) derived verbs in 15 or tng, and (2) syn- 
copated verbs. 

293. Verbs in 15. 

t3Aiti§, gather. ceArmtn$, buy. 

Derived verbs in (11)15 have exactly the 
same inflections as those of bUAit in all the 
tenses, except the future and the con- 
ditional. 



INDICATIVE MOOD, 
Future Tense. 



SINGJ PLURAL. 

bAiteocxvo bAibeocAirni*o 
bAiteoóAi]i b&iteocAi*ó pt> 
'oAiteocAit) fé bAiteoóAi"o 

AUTON., b-MteoccAn. 



SING. PLURAL, 

ce&r mócxvo ce&rm óc&imí-o 
ceArmóóAiri ceArmócAix) f ib 
ce&rmócAi'ó fé ce&rmócAro 



(bAibeocAr (C.) 
Relative j^il eoc*it> (M.) 



ce&rm ocú&^ , 

ce&rmócAr 
ceAnrócAi-ó, 



33 



CONDITIONAL, 



bAiteocMnn b&it eoc&irníf 
b&iteoccÁ bAiteoc<vó f ib 
b&iteocAt) f é b&iteocAVoir 



AuTON., b&i teocú&i (&01). 

Verbal Noun, bAitjm^ó, 

Verbal \ u a . . 
Adjective í b * lll 5££; 



ceAnnoóxMnn ceArmocAirníf 
ce&rmóccÁ ceArmóÓAT) pb 
ceAn nócA'ó f é ceAnnóc&i'oíf 

ceAnn ócú&í (aoi). 
ceAHHAc. 

ceArmtnjce. 



SYNCOPATED VERBS. 

292. Verbs of more than one syllable 
whose stems end in it, m, 1|\, if or 1115, 
belong to this class. 

puASAifi, proclaim. C015H, spare. 

All the tenses (except future and con- 
ditional) of puA5Ai|\ are Jike those of mob, 
the stem being ptiASfi ; those of coigit are 
like X)u&M, the stem being coigt. The 3rd 
sing, past tense is ^puASAi^ fé and C015H 
fé : the 2nd sing, imperf., ^puASA^tA and 
CoKibueA. See Syncope, § 33. 



34 
Future Tense. 

Vik\5j\óCvV0, &c., like ceAtitiOóAT). 
coi5teoCv\T), &c, like bAiteo&vo. 

Conditional. 

T)^uK\st\OCv\mn, &c, like Ce<MinóóAinn. 
coi5LeoCv\itm, &c., like t3v\aeoC<yirm. 

Verbal Noux, piux^AifvU C0151IX. 
Verbal Adj., $u&5&ytA coigitue, 

kules for Formation of Verbal Nouns. 

315. (a) Verbs of the first conjugation generally 
form their verbal nouns by the addition of a*ó or eAt) ; 
final 1 in digraphs and trigraphs is dropped : -oun, 
•oúruvó ; mot, tnoWo ; mitt, mitte^t) ; bpif, b^i^e^t) ; 
bucot, bu^t<yó ; t)ói j, *oója*ó. 

(b) Verbs of the second conjugation in 15 or m j 
form their verbal noun in ut;<y6 (or u) : Áfmtng, Ájvo- 
u jA*ó (or Á|a*oú) ; bAiVij, bAilitigAX) (or bAiUú) ; tnung, 
mimuJAt) (or rnítnú). 

(c) Syncopated verbs ending in it, hi, or 1|A, 
usually form verbal nouns by addition of c : coffin, 
copinc ; -oibip, t)ibi|Ac ; t<Nb<Mji, tAbAipc ; coigit, 
coijitc. 

For exceptions to these rules see Larger Gram- 
mar § 316. 



35 



318. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



UÁim, / am 



IKDICATIYE MOOD. 



ist 



2nd 



3rd 



Autono- 
Relative mous 



Present. uÁnn cÁifi(c&oi) cá *pé 

CÁ1TTIÍX) cÁ pb* UÁ1*0 

or, cÁ tné, r& uú, £/£. 

Habi- bím bíj\ bíonn \ é 

tual. bímíx) bíonn pb bí*o 



Depen- pntirn 
put™ to 



dent 
Past 



-ptnt/ijA put fé 
pntcí * pnti*o 



bíof bi-p bí f é 

bíom^]A bíobA|A bíox)A|\ 



Depen- j\Ab&f ^&b&if ^&ib fé 

dent. {A&bATTI&fA fVfcb&b&JA JA&bA'O&jA 



Imper- bírm 
feet. bí™íf 

Future. be<vo 
beimí*o 

(or)hé^v 
béiTrn-o 



bíceÁ bícró -pé 

biot) pb bí*oíf 

beijA beró f é 

beif> pb bei*o 

béi]A béit) fé 

béi*ó pb béi*o 



9? n " , bemti 
ditional. belniíf 



beiceÁ be/vó -pé 
beA*ó pb beitn'f 

(6>r)béirm, béiceÁ, ^fc. 



bíonn (M.) 
bíonnf(C) 

ptnt 

bí 

f\&ib 

I bíot) 

(M.)beró 

(C.)béxvp 

bexvó 
bé<vó 



bíC6A]\ 

pntceAjt 
bíce&f 

fl&bÚAf 

bící 

bei^eA|\ 



bev 



♦The old termination of the 2nd person plural pres. indie, is 
still used in : uáúaoi, ftntcí, T>ei)\úí, maipcí, and (sJcloipcí. 



36 
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



ist 2nd 3rd Autonomous 

Present. (50) j\a6at) {i&b&ifi jA^ib yé y . . 

^aTdttiui-o ]\Aib fib p^bAi-o r^ buA F 

The negative particle for this tense is nÁ. 



bící 



bice&yi 



Past. (50 m ) bínn bíúeÁ bíot> 

bíim'f* bíot) pb bí-oíf 

The negative particle is n&ji. 



Imperative Mood. 

bím bí bíot) fé 

bírníf bí-óit) bí-oíf 

Negative particle is nÁ. 
Verbal Noun : beic. 



T^m is the only verb that has a distinct form to 
express habitual state (or action) in the present tense. 



348. The Dependent Form of an irregu- 
lar verb is the form that must be used after 
the following particles : ni, not ; Ati, whether ; 
nÁ or tiAC, that not, whether not ; 50, that ; 
ca, where f; mti|\A (mvmA), unless; *oa, if; 
and the relative when governed by a 
preposition. 



37 

333. is- 

(a) In Principal Sentences. 

Assertive Negative Interrog. Neg. Inter. 
Present Tense, if An ní n&c (nÁc) 



Past Tense and J b^ aja níop nÁ|\ (1) 

Conditional (b', -oob' Afib níopb riÁpb (2) 



Assertive Negative 

50 mb^ nÁ|\A (1) 
Pres. Subj. ^ S^T 1 ^ 

gu|A^b nÁjWb (2) 



P;*st Subj 



( -oÁ tnb& tnufi& (1) 
1x)Á mV mtijAAb (2) 



(6) In Dependent Sentences. 

Present Tense. ■} | u j^ b ^ v (n , 6 ' } J 2) 

( run r»Áj\ (1) 

Past ' ( 5unb tiÁtAb (2) 

f 50 mb& n&c rnb^) ,-., 

Conditional. - j;up nÁ^ )^ 

[ 5U|Ab nájtb (2) 



Use lines (1) with consonants, lines (2) with vowels 



38 



342. Stem 



A. 



7- v Sgive. 

1 <onng. D. 



Present Tense 



*Oei|A, say, 



D, 



bei|i-im; cuj-Aitn 
beif\(eArm) ye 

uAb]A-Aim ; rug- 
Airn 



Past Tense 



uu 5 -Af 
riig-Af 



(A)-oei|A-im I *oubf\-Af (-oubAj\c) 

(A)*oei|A(eAnn) ye I -oubAiju: ye 
Ab|\-Aiin, t)eit\-inii TwbtA-Af 



A. j geib-irn; fAJ-Airn 
D. {TAJ-Aim ; f Áj-Aim 



e* ,f ^ make 
■oeiti > ' 

D. 



jm-m ; Tjein-irn ; 
5ní(onn) ye 



fUAip-eAf, or, 

fUAfl-Af 

]:iiAi|i-eAf, or, 

^HA|\-Ar 



£eic, see 



D, 



T>eAn-Aim 
*oein-iTn 



ci-m ; peic-im 
cí(orm) fé 

j?eic-irn 



jurm-eAf/óein-eAf 
pintle f é 
-oéA|MiAf,*óein-eAf 



connAC-A^ 

(conriAc) 
connAic yé 

V(e)AC-Af (feACA) 



Uéi§, go. 



A. 
D. 



Qem,catry. A.&D, 



céij-im 



cuA-o-A-p ; 
cuait> yé 

l T)eAC-Ap*OeAJ-A^, 
CUAT)-Af 



beifi-im ; j 1 At1 5" A f 

beijA(eAnn) yé 



^&b,take.go. A.&D/ ^Ab-Aim 

C }- ^>\/iear.A.&D. 
cltnn ) 



JAb-Af 



caj, )come. A.& D. 

ceA^y 

1ú, eat. A. & D. 



ctoif-im 

cluin-nn 



uij-im ; uAg-Aim ; 
ceA^-Aim 
ci5(eAnn) fé 



(cuAL-Af (cuaÍa), 

(cUaIa(iT)) fé 



1C-1TTI 



úÁng-Af (cÁriAg) 
uÁmi5 yé 



*0 5 1C-eAf [-OUA-ÓAf] 



The Imperative mood of the above verbs is formed regularly from the 
stem, except C15 and -oeij\, the 2ndpers. sing, of which are u a f\ and aba/i-p: 
the other persons are regular. The Imperfect is formed regularly from 



39 



Future Tense 


Verbal Noun 


Verbal Adjective 
(Past Participle) 


béAjA-t?AT) ; 

CAbAfl-t?A-0 
CAbAjVfAT) ; 
C1ub|A-AT) 


UAbA1]AC 


CAbAJAÚA, UUgCA 


(A^eAtA-fAT) 
AbjAOC-AT) 


|AÁ"Ó 


|\Áit)ue 


geob-At), geAb-At) 

bt?Aig-eAT), 
bpng-eAT) 


JTAgÁlL 


t?A§CA 

t?Aigue 

fACCA 


•oeAn-fAT) 
>> 


'oéAHAtii 
•oeAnAX) 


" ■ - - 

X)éAr»CA 


ci-t?eAt), yeic-treAt) 
t?eic-t?eA-o 


t?ei-pcinu 
yeiceAt 


yeicce 


]iac-a'o ; |\AJ-A > 

9> >J 


-out 


[x> lite a] 


beAfl-t?A*0 


bjieic 


beijAte, beifiCA 


jeob-At); 5Ab-i?Ao 


^AbÁit 


^AbÚA 


ctoif-^eAt) 
ctinn-treAt) 


cloifinu,ctoifcin 
clof , ctoijrreAt, 
cUnnfinu 


ctoifce 

cttnnce 


dOC-fAT) 


ceAcc 


CAgCA 


iof-(i?)A > o 


ice 


icce 



the Present Tense stem, and the Conditional from the Future stem. 
All the other forms are formed quite regularly. Wherever the 3rd 
pers. sing, presents any difficulty, it is given in the above table. 



40 



Defective Verbs. 

423. An (Ann, AnfA), says, said— used only when 
the exact words of the speaker are given : AnrA mire, 
said I. 

T>An, it seems, it seemed ; x>&y tiotri, it seems to me, 
viethinks. 

}TeAT)An, I know, I knew : used only negatively or 
interrogatively, and inflected as a past tense : feAT)An, 
|'eA*o]}Aíf(if), feAT)Ain ré, etc. 

UÁnt a, it happened, came to pass, 

T>'j?óbAin, or bA -óóbAin, it all but happened ; bA 
•óóbAin *oom cmcmi, / had well nigh fallen, 1 nearly fell. 



435. Interrogative Words and Phrases. 

When? cAÚAin, cé An tiAin Which {adj.) ? cé An . . . 



Where ? ca, ce An aic 
How? conur (cionnur), cé 

An CA01 

Why? cat) tiA ÚAob (50), 

CAT) ctnge 
How far ? ) cé An f ait>. 
How long?) An pvoA 
Which (pro**.) ? cé, cioca, 

ceocA. 

All these take the relative form of the verb, except 

CÁ, CAT) nA CAOb (50). CAT) CU1ge (50), CAT) Af (go), 

which eclipse and take dependent form. 



What? cat), céAjvo, cneAT) 
Whither? cá 

Whence i ja-o Ar 

How much ?) cé *tiéiT), cÁ 
How many?> ™éAT>,An'rnó 
Who? cé(c 1 A). 



445, 



ADVERBS. 



A1TIAC, Out 

Amu 15 (c), outside 
o,,r: 5 áttiac, however 

ATTlt,A1T), tllUS, SO 

Anocc, to-night 



1 n-Aon con) 
An 615111, scarcely 
An jcub, back- 
wards 



AnAtb, hither 
Anonn, thither 
Anú* imbÁnAc, the 
day after to- 
morrow 



41 



Adverbs— (continued) . 



Attéiji, last night 
Anoif, now 
Attif(c), again 
AnnfAn (pn) 

there 
Atinfo, Á£r£ 
Annf ú"0, yonder 
an Aif , fozrá 
aj\ bAtb, 6y #^/ 

by, immediately 

«t^X at first 

&]\ T)CUf ) 

aj\ rriAi-oin, £/z ^ 

morning 
Af\ uAijub \some- 
uAineAnuA ) times 
ah 01]^ -j Anif> ;/0zy 

Aníof, up (from 

below) 
&x\\x&\,down (from 

above) 
AniAn, from the 

West 
ó,x)zuó,\x) i from the 

North 
AtroeAf , from the 

South 
Anoin, from the E. 
Anú* m*oé, the day 

before yesterday 

AnunAit)) , . 

1 . \ last year 
Antupit) ) ^ 

beAx: n&c) , , 
. ° , (almost 
to ac mo]\ I 

C A|ui is usually- 
general prouuDciatipu 



ceAriA, already 
coiiifW r l \ hUst 

All f A1T) ) 

x)Á ^ífub, m ^#r- 

*oe tó, by day 
lo'oitice, ifc' 01*6- 

ce, by night 
pneipn (teif),^/^ 
fé (fAoi) x)ó, /zwV* 
pé (fAOl) úní, 

thrice 
cof a 'n Áijvoe, at 

full gallop 
*oe geiu, suddenly 
A|\ ah -ocoinu (50 
T)iAip) immedi- 
ately 
*oe iÁcAin, pre- 
sently 
^at) ó (foin), long 

ago 
]:aoi -óeipeAt) (pé 
-óeine), #/ /aj"/, 
<?/ length 
50 *oeo | /or 

50 b|AÁc(Ac)j ^wr 
50 Léin ) £//- 
50 h-iomtÁn j" tír^ 
50 moc, £#r/y 

^° X quickly 

50 CApAID) * *> 

50 mime, 0//^ 
50 h-AnriAni, j^/- 



spellod Aé^ujA-ó, 
of the word. 



50 fóit, awhile, 

yet 
50 'oeirrnn, indeed 
1 bpyo,/^ 0^* 
p&|t 1 bpvo, before 

long 
1 gconintii'óe, #/- 

líToé, yesterday 
in*oiu, to-day 
1 mbÁ}\AC| /0- 
ArnÁineAÓ) morrow 

tÁ Att n-A bÁ]AAC, 

0« the following 
day 

A|\ TnAiT>in 1TT01U, 
tféw 1 morning 

1 mbbiA*ónA, Mw 
year 

ifceAc(motion),m 

1 f c1 5 (rest), inside 

ttian An jcéA-onA, 
likewise 

mA|\ pn, //b^ 

ó ciAnAib, a wAi'/i 
ago 

ó (nA) céite, asun- 
der 

ó -óeAf, south- 
wards 

ó cuait>, north- 
wards 

6y ipot, secretly 

óf Ájm, openly 

ó fom, íi«fí 

but A|Aii represented the 



42 



Adverbs — [continued), 



|\i<mti, ever 

\\&\\, back, zvest- 

wards 
\o\\\, eastzvards 



fiof, down 
fUAf, up 

CAÍÍ, on the other 
side 



urn cjiicnónA (fA 
c|\ÁcnónA),i;/ the 
evening 



450. 



PREPOSITIONS. 



* 5 ,«* V w V é) mder Uwitk 

<yp, cw fo (pA) ) o 9 jrom 

&y, out 5^ti, without 

•o&p, #y(in swear- 50, /0 (motion) 

ing) 
■oe, off, from 1, a, i/z 



fioitii, |Aoim, before 
c&ji, ca|a, 0z^r 



*00, ft? 



i*oija, between 



through 
urn, 1m, about 



609. The following are employed to translate 
English prepositions : they are followed by the genitive 
case in Irish, 

cuti (cum), towards \ *oc&ob, concerning aj\ cut, behind 
cimce-oll, around "oo |Aéi|A, according 1 ítoiait), a/fer 



q\(e)^ypn&, across 

\ le l co 'r\ beside 

of corii&ip, before 
6y cionn, above 



to 
1 metfc, my ^SmS' ^ ( ° f 

1 gce^n, a/ M* Af ^ Ar 

" /d */ throughout (of 

aj\ A5A1Í), opposite place) 



&fi \ow, for the 1 n-AgAit), against 1 n-Aice, war 

^* 0/ Ar F eAt), j ^ 1 5CÓi|A,te W5AIÚ, 

1 ljpocAi|\, along 1 5CAiceAtTi,> . for (benefit of 

with \ \\\t ) & or use of). 



43* 
451. CONJUNCTIONS. 

ac(z), but 50, that mAj\ -pm pern, even 

&5Uf, if, "], <z#^ n&c, nÁ, that.,, not so 

50, nó 50, %?z/í7 niti]AA (mun&), i/ «0/, 
A|A a fon 50, iT>if\...&5iif , both unless 

put) if 50, cé ...and n&, than, nor 

50, although ínÁ, ^y , nó, #r 

mA]i, dtf ó, since 

•oÁ, i/ pé(b) m&\\, accord- ó tiAc, since.. .not 

ing as -put, f Aj\, before, 

t>e ftjAt'5 50, ]?aoi 1 -oujieo 50^ 

^At) 1]" 50, cf\Á Afi nóf 50 Vjy? Afo/ t)Á 1i>pí§ pn,)///^- 
'f 5°> because 1 5C&01 50J wine pn ) fore. 



44 



PART II 



SYNTAX. 



The Article. 

473. In the following cases the definite 
article is used in Irish, though not used in 
English :— 

(1) Before surnames, when not preceded 
by a Christian name : Raií) An tojteAtnAó 
Ann ? Was Walsh there ? 

(2) Before the names of continents, 
countries, and some cities : An Aip|\ic, 
Africa ; ah SpAinn, Spain ; An ftóirh, Rome ; 
An Aitne, Athens ; the genitive case of 
^AHUrti takes the article. C At A1|\ na 
^AitXrhe, Connx)Ae tiA S^tttie. 

The article is not used with éijie, AU)A, 
and SAfAtiA in the Nom., Acc. and Dat. 
cases. 



45 

(3) Before abstract nouns; An u-otc, 
evil ; An peACAó, sin. 

(4) With the demonstrative adjectives : 
An peA|\ f o, this man. 

(5) To translate "apiece" "per" or "a" 
before weights and measures : 

UAOt (fiéAt) An ceAnn, sixpence apiece ; 
UAit\ fA (wf <\n) mt)tiAt)Ain 3 once a year. 

(6) With titles which precede their noun : 
An u-AtAi|t peAT)AH ó ÍA05Ait\e, Father 
Peter O'Leary. 

(7) To give emphasis : CuaLa fé An mime 
nA t>iAit), i/e heard someone behind him. 

(8) Before the names of classes ; Ca nA 
T)Aome níof tAige ná mAfi a ttfoir, People 
are weaker than they used to be. 

(9) Before the names of the seasons, 
months, and days of the week, except when 
they are used in the genitive case as 
adjectives. 

An worn (or <xn é to) An UiAti ? Is this 
Monday ? 

1nx)iu An Aome, To-day is Friday, 



46 

but, U\ fAriitiAi^, a summer day ; oróóe 
5eiiti^\i*0, a winter night ; T)6 tuAin, on 
Monday. 

In the following cases the article is used 
in English but not in Irish : — 

(1) Before a noun followed by a definite 
genitive (i.e., the genitive case of a definite 
noun) : tnAC An fnji, the son of the man ; 
peAfi An uige, the man of the house. When 
a demonstrative adj. is used with the first 
noun, the article is also used ; 11a pocAit 
tit) m AtAfi, those words of my father. 

(2) Before the antecedent of a relative 
the article is often omitted : if é mnne x>o 
t)T Ann, he is the person who was there. 

(3) Before nouns denoting occupation 
after proper names : Cat>5 5 a " ^ Tim the 
smith ; OifTn £ite, Oisin the poet ; Coj\mAC 
DÁitie, Cormac the bailiff. 



The Noun. 

474. In Irish one noun governs another 
in the genitive case : ceAnn An CApAiVt, the 
horse's head ; ttiac An p\\, the man's son. 



47 

475. Proper names are usually aspirated 
in the genitive case : pectin ttlÁifie, Mary's 
pen ; LeAttAfi SeASAiti, John's book. 

477, Apposition has almost entirely dis- 
appeared in modern Irish, the second noun 
being put in the nominative case : tAirh 
ah AtAfi peADAjt Ó ÍAOgAifie, from the 
hand of Father Peter O'Leary. 



478. A noun used adjectively in English 
is translated into Irish by the genitive 
case, and the initial of the genitive is sub- 
ject to the same rules as regards aspiration 
and eclipsis, as if it were an adjective : 
j?Airme 0i|\, a gold ring ; tit) ci]tce, a hen 
tgg- 

480 • There is no " partitive genitive " in 
Irish, hence nouns expressing a part of 
anything are followed by t)o or ve with 
the dative : An CftAot) if Aoijvoe 'oe'n 
C|\Ann, the highest branch of the tree ; cum 
•oof 11 a (ve riA) peA|tAit), some of the men. 

481. The personal numerals (§ 177) take 
the article in the singular, and the noun 
after them in the genitive plural, except 



48 



when they are used partitively — in this 
case they take -oo or t>e with the dative : 
ATI ctnseAjt t;eAft, the five men ; Ati t>ei|\c 
rhAC, the two sons ; tiAorit)At\ "oof ha 
peAnAit), nine of the men. 



484. A Christian name, when used in ad- 
dressing a person, is always in the vocative 
case, preceded by a : pAti tiotn, a SéAtriAif, 
Wait for me, James. 

486. Surnames, when not preceded by a 
christian name, usually take the termina- 
tion -Ac, and are then declined like 
triAttCAC (S 57) ; or triAC may be used before 
Ui (the genitive of Ó) : £)t;tiu, ah pAonAC 
Atinro ? Is Power here ? ; CapaU. An t>t\iAti- 
ai$, O'Brien's horse ; ^At) 1 teit, a tine Úí 
ÓAonfi, Come here, O'Keeffe. 



488. A surname preceded by any of the 
words Ó, Ua (fern., Hi), or ÍTIac (fern., tlic), 
is put in the genitive case. It is aspirated 
after tli or tlic, also after UT and ttlic (the 
genitives of Ó and tTlAC). SeAjjAn Ó Con- 
nAilt, John O'Connell ; triÁit\e tlí ContiAiU, 
Mary O'Connell ; teAOAn SeASÁm Hi 
ConnAiU, John O'Connell's book. 



49 
The Adjective. 

494. As a general rule the adjective fol- 
lows the noun it qualifies : peAjt rtiAit, a 
good man ; LeAt)At\ rnófi, a big book. 

Numeral adjs. consisting of one word, possessive 
and interrogative adjectives precede their nouns, 

495. When an adjective follows the noun 
it qualifies, it agrees with the noun in gen- 
der, number and case : toeAti rhófi, a big 
woman ; mAC Ati £ifl rhóift, the son of the 
big man ; ha p^ ttiO|\A, the big men. 

496. Whenever an adjective is predicated 
of a noun by any verb, the adjective never 
agrees with the noun, and is not inflected 
for gender or number : ua ah peA|\ f ah 
LAit)i|\, that man is strong ; ua riA pj\ fin 
L&roij\, those men are strong. 

499. Adjectives denoting fulness or a 
part of anything, are followed by T>e with 
bhe dative : t)T An toAjtAite tAti T)uif ce, the 
barrel was full of water. 

505. The Numeral Adjectives Aon, *oá, 
ceAt) (first), and ufieAf cause aspiration ; 



50 

if the noun begins with p, Aon prefixes z 
(§ 28) : An té&r> f eAfi, the first man ; X)Á 
CapaU,, two horses. 

/ 

507. SeAóu, oóu, íiaoi, *oeiC, and their 
compounds cause eclipsis, and prefix n to 
vowels : fe^Cu tnt)A, seven cows ; t)eió 
n-tit)tA, ten apples. 

508. qti, ceitjie, CU15, fé aspirate céAT), 
100, and mile, 1,000, and may or may not 
aspirate other words; they eclipse all nouns 
in the Gen. PI. ; ufií CeAt), 300 ; ceitfle 
rhfte, 4,000 ; UiaC uftf t>pfltiu, £3 worth, 

509. The noun after Aon, pte, ry&tAX) 
(t)a TpiCiT)), uttí pióiT), ceitfie pint), céAt) 
and mite is always in the singular: &on 
uttAtt T)éA5, eleven apples ; pióe capaVI. 
twenty horses. The other numerals (ex- 
cept t)Á) may take the singular number, 
when unity of idea is expressed : fteAfimtnT) 
f é tiA uftf t)tnUe T)o tttiAtAi). He forgot to 
strike the three blows. 

514. The noun after t>a, two, is always 
in the Dual Number,* which in every Irish 
noun has the same form as the dative 



♦There are three numbers in Irish: — the Singular, the Dual, 
and the PluraJ. 



51 

singular. All the cases of the dual num- 
ber are alike, but the form of the genitive 
plural is often used for the genitive dual ; 
t>A CapaU, two horses; >óa tÁirii, two 
hands ; *óa t>tnn (í>á t)0), two cows. 

524, The Possessive Adjectives are usu- 
ally followed by the word euro when we 
wish to express the portion of a thing or of 
a class of things which belongs to one or 
more persons : tno Ctni> AfiAiti, my bread; 
a tmx> poriA, his wine ; a euro leAttAfi, her 
books ; a gcuro CApAtX, their horses. 

We often use the definite article in IrisL 
where the possessive adjectives would be 
used in English : Conuf a ttptnt An 
uftAinue ? How is you? 1 health? ; Ha 
f Atinuuis euro ha cotiitinr An, do not covet 
your neighbour's goods ; Corttíf au£ ah 
ctifiAm ? How is your family y 



The Pronoun. 

528. The Personal Pronouns agree with 
the nouns for which they stand in number 
and person, but not always in gender. If 
the gender of a noun be different from the 



52 

sex of the person denoted by the noun, the 
pronoun agrees in gender with the sex : 
1r niAit ah CAitfn (m.) i. She is a good 
girl. 1f otc An cotiitifirA (/) 6. He is a 
bad neighbour, if f Ái*ót>ifi An fcotOg (/.) 
e. He is a rich farmer. 

532. The personal pronouns always come 
after the verb : mot Ann fé tú, he praises 
you. 

209. The Conjunctive forms of the per- 
sonal pronouns are used only immediately 
after the verb as its subject ; in all other 
positions the Disjunctive forms must be 
used. The disjunctive forms are used with 
if, because the word immediately after if 
is never the subject (see § 589.) 

535. The accusative pronoun usually 
comes la'st in the sentence or clause to 
which it belongs : "o'ipÁs f é f An Á1U fin & 
He left it in that place. 

538. The Relative Pronoun when gov- 
erned by a preposition causes eclipsis, 
except in the past tense (with regular 
verbs). In the past tense (regular verbs) 
it unites with fio, the old particle used 



53 

with this tense, and becomes Afl : An aiu 1 
n-A (n&) Xypmt f é, the place in which he is ; 
An peAfi T)'a|1 geAttAf mo teAt)Att, the man 
to whom I promised my book. 

541. In colloquial Irish the last phrases 
and similar ones are translated thus : ah 
aiu 50 ttptnt f é Ann ; An peA]\ gtijt (or aj\) 
-Se&XX&f trio teAt)Att t)ó. Ann and x)6 are 
prepositional pronouns, not simple preposi- 
tions. Compare the following : An t>eAn 
?;o ttptnt An t)0 aici Tor, atí X)e&n Ag a 
t>ptiit An t)0), the woman who has the cow, 

555. The relative is distinctly marked by 
the position of the words : 

Ca An peAfi as otoAifl, The man is at 
work. 

An ^eAfi aua Ag ot)Ai|\. The man who 
is at work. 



The Verb. 

547. As a general rule the verb precedes 
its subject ; uá fé, he is ; r>f An peAfi Ann, 
the man was there. 



54 

548. Transitive verbs govern the accusa- 
tive case, and the usual order of words is 
—Verb, Subject, Object : t)tiAit ah reAn 
twi é, that man struck him. 

For the conditions under which a verb is aspi- 
rated or eclipsed see §21 (g) and §26 (e). 

549. The most frequent use of the sub- 
junctive mood is with the conjunction 50 
(negative tiAjt), to express a wish : 

30 mbeArmtnsro T)ia t>tnu ! May God 
bless you ! 

50 mAijtit) Afi ti^Aettnrm ftAtt ! May our 
Irish Language prosper I 



561. in Irish there is neither an infini- 
tive mood nor a present participle, both 
functions beinjr discharged by the verbal 
noun. When the verbal noun is preceded 
by the preposition as (or a') it is equival- 
ent to the English present participle. The 
verbal noun governs the noun immedi- 
ately after it in the genitive case. 

Ca fé &' mil AttAite, He is going home. 
Ca ruvo & ceACu, They are coming. Ca ha 
PAiroi as irmttu, The children are playing. 



55 



t3T f é a 9 toAitiu Art péi|i. He was cutting the 

grass. Ca aw ipeA\\ $a tttiAtAt). The man 
is striking him. 



When the English present participle 
expresses rest, e.g., standing, sitting, lying \ 
sleeping, etc., we must use the preposition 
1 (in) compounded with a suitable pos- 
sessive adjective : ZÁ mé Am Cmo) Co'oUvó, 
I am asleep ; ua f é Via furóe, He is 
sitting ; t)T ah b'eAti ha f eAf Atri as An 
T)OfiAf. The woman was standing at the 
door. 



566. The infinitive of an English intran- 
sitive verb is translated by the simple 
verbal noun. T)tit>Aitu; fé Uom trot 50 
CofiCAi$, He told me to go to Cork. 1p 
VeAjtfl Horn fit)t)At, I prefer to walk. 



568. The infinitive of a transitive verb 
(no purpose implied) is translated by the 
verbal noun preceded by the preposition 
t)o (or a). Note the order of the words. 
T)ut)AijAu m'AtAM({ tiom capaXX t)0 CeAtinAC, 
My father told me to buy a horse. t)A 
Cdfi T)tnu An ^éAjt a t)Ainu, You ought to 
cut the grass. 



56 

569. When the English infinitive ex- 
presses purpose use te before the verbal 
noun if the infinitive is intransitive, 
otherwise use ótm or te before the object 
of the English infinitive, and X)o or a before 
the verbal noun. 

Cdmig fé te pAnArhAmu, He came to stay. 

Cuaií) f é óun An T)o\(&w a twnAt), He went 
to shut the door. 

CAIH15 f é teif An gcApAtt x>o CeAnnAó, He 
came to buy the horse. 

Tyei|\i<5 fé nA feAfArh Cun nA ttfeAti *oo 
DUAtAt), He stood up to strike the men. 

The following construction is frequently 
used : 

CAims f é as xríot An CApAitt, He came to 
sell the horse. 



580. " Not " before an English infinitive 
is translated by the preposition gAti : 

DuttAfic teif 5An An tDOjiAf a íránAtf, I told 
him not to shut the door. 

AtoAifi te tofUAn 5An An gofu: *oo tjieAttAA 
Tell Brian not to plough the field. 



57 

The Verb 1S. 

588. The verb if must be used 

(1) When we tell or ask who or (which) 
a person (or thing) is or was. (Sentences of 
identity.) 

(2) When we tell or ask what a person 
or thing is or was, without any reference to his 
or its becoming so. (Sentences of classifiU 
cation.) 

(3) When we wish to emphasise any 
idea other than tnat contained in the verb. 

Examples. 



/John is the man, 1p e SeA$An An 

peAtt. 
James is my 1r 6 SéAtnAf mo 

brother, -oe-AttDnAtAiu. 

Is that your An é rw "oo 

book ? teADAfi ? 

That is the 1r é fin ah capaU 

white horse, t)An. 



Who? 

or 
Which? 



Notice the use of the personal pronoun between if 
and a definite noun. 

If é is pronounced, and usually written, 'f é ; 
similarly 'fi, and 'fi&TK 



58 



What? 



^John is a priest, if fA^c 

Dermot was a X)& p "OiAtitmiro. 

king. 
A cow is an ani- if Aimíiroe to 

mal. 

A salmon is a if iAfc toftA-oati* 
fish. 



Em- 
phasis. 



/We went to Der- 
ry yesterday. 

We went to Ber- 
ry yesterday. 

He is sick. 

He has the 

money. 



1f 111*06 T)0 CtJA- 

mA|\ 50 *Doi^e. 
If 50 Doijte X)0 

cuAm-Ajt irroe. 
1r arm auá re\ 

1f Alge ACÁ All 

c-Aiftsexvo. 



In the first set of examples it will be noticed that 
the English subject comes immediately after if, whilst 
in the second set the English subject comes last in 
Irish. 



Every sentence must contain, at least, 
two things — a subject, and a predicate. 
Whatever we are speaking about is called 
the subject ; whatever information we give 
(or seek) about the subject is the predicate. 
In the case of transitive verbs in the active 



59 

voice we must also have an object to com- 
plete the idea, 

589. The verb if must be immediately 
followed by the predicate of the sentence. 
There is no exception to this rule. 

Examples. 

An eagle is a bird. 1f éAti (p)iotA|l. 

Is that a book ? An teAt)Aji 6 f in ? 

Tim is a farmer. 1f fcotóg Caí^. 

Is it a ghost ? An z&mXyfe é ? 

It is a cow. 1f t)ó i. 

John is a doctor. 1f T)ocuuiji SeAgAn. 

Roderick was a king. t)A j\í fttiAráftf. 

Turf is not coal. Hi gUAt mom. 

Coal is not turf. ílí móm gtiAl. 

Water is not milk. tli t>Airme tnf ce. 

590. In sentences of identity (§ 588 (1)) 
there is a great difference between English 
and Irish construction. In Irish the more 
particular and individual of the two nouns 
(or pronouns) is made the predicate, 
in English it is made the subject. The 
following will exemplify. 



60 

Q. Who are you ? A. I am the mes- 
senger. 
Q. Who is the mes- A. I am the mes- 
senger ? senger. 
Q. Who was Roder- A. Roderick O'Con- 
ick O'Connor? nor was the last 

AjVo- j\T of Ireland. 

Q. Who was the last A. Roderick O'Con- 

Atw-fii ? nor was the last 

These answers show the tendency in 
English of making the more particular or 
individual of the two the subject In Irish 
it is made the predicate. 

(a) A proper noun is more individual 
than a common noun. 

(6) A pronoun of the first or second 
person is more individual than a pronoun 
of the third person. 

(c) A pronoun of the first or second per- 
son is more individual than a proper or a 
common noun. 

(d) A. pronoun of the third person, unless 
when it is equivalent to a demonstrative pro- 
noun, is not more individual than a noun. 



61 
Examples. 



Con is the king. 
You are the man. 
I am the messenger. 
I am ha 
You are John. 
Erin is our country. 
Irish is our language, 



Are you Mary ? 

James is the man of 
the house. 



He is my father. 
It is the master. 
It is my friend. 



'Sé Corm ah fiT. 

1f UUf a An peAjt. 

Af tmfe An uoaCuai j\e 

1f tmfe é. 

1r utifA SeAgAn. 

' ST 6i|te Ajt T>^T|\. 

'S i An $Aettnri5 
(5Aet>it5e) a]a 
T)ueAn5A. 

An utifA tTlAitte? 
'S é SéAtriAf f eAfi ah 

'Sé fm m'AtAijt. 
'S é An mAigiruijt 6. 
'Sé mo óa^a é. 



In the above sentences the underlined 
words are the predicates. 

In § 588 (2) the words " without any refer- 
ence to his or its becoming so " are very 
important : because if there be any idea of 
change of state in the mind, we cannot use 
the verb if . If we wi^h to convey the idea 



62 

that a person or thing has become what he 
(or it) is, and that he (or it) was not always so y 
we must use the verb ua. In such con- 
structions the verb ua must be always 
followed by the preposition i (in) and a 
suitable possessive adjective. 

ZÁ fé w' (uia) £eAfi, He is a man (i.e>, 
no longer a boy). 1f peAjt é, He is a man 
(i.e., not a woman or a ghost). Ca fí Via 
tntiAOi rhOi|\ Atioif, She is a big woman now, 
X)ymt ui3 ax) t)tiACAitt rhAit? Are you a 
good boy ? t)i At) CAitin rhAit, Be a good 
girl. 





Date Due 




/'. <fJ 






f 
u n n a 


^— ^ T 


















































































































<|) 









• ■■ ■» ..■'•:,'.■ . -■•,.■■' , ■ ■■'■ ■ , . ■ ■..■' ■ - ■■' ■ . ■ ■ ■ . ' 

' ■ • •■'. ! - ■■■ ■ •■ ■ :■■■', '.',■-- '■": 






X^.:í 


'■ 




../.;•'• .if;;. > 


■ ■ '•'..'. 


.■•'■''..■..■^K'i:-.'- 1 ' 


>'. ■'''•":. •■"' 


■ 


,; .v ;-,fc-i 




;''íl';- "' 




■í v 




. 















6806 



Author 



H h r i p t í f\ n h rot h fi r r 



Title 

First Irish grammar. 



1 £ r> 



'fcj-y 



6 >?U C 



BOSTON COLLEGE LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY HEIGHTS 
CHESTNUT HILL, MASS. 

Books may be kept for two weeks and may be 
renewed for the same period, unless reserved. 

Two cents a clay is charged for each book kept 
overtime. 

If you cannot find what you want, ask the 
Librarian who will be glad to help you. 

The borrower is responsible for books drawn 
on his card and for all fines accruing on the same. 



r